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Particle Characterization Analyzers:

Q: How many detectors does the LA-950V2 have?
A: The LA-950V2 has a total of 87 detectors: 75 in the low-angle (medium to extra-large particles), 8 in the side-angle (medium to small particles), and 4 in the wide-angle (small to ultra-small particles). The LA-950 scans each of the 87 detectors (all at unique, optimized angles) 5,000 times each second. From the time you click the “Measure” button to the final PSD appearing on the screen, it only takes 5 seconds.

Q: In the list of standards that you offer with the LA-950V2, the smallest nominal diameter is 20 nm. How do you measure the performance of the instrument if you don’t have a standard for 10 nm?
A: We don't claim to measure a distribution peak at 10 nm, but we can measure tails of the distribution down to 10 nm. The LA-950 can measure LUDOX TM (colloidal silica) at a median size of 30-35 nm. The LA-950V2 is the only diffraction analyzer in the world that can measure particles this small."

Q: What is the purpose of using cross polarizing filters in the FlowCAM?
A: Cross polarization is a technique used in microscopy to look for particular types of chemical structures. A single polarizer "aligns" all the light waves to the same angle. If a second polarizer is placed in the optical path having the same angle as the light (90 degrees rotated from the first polarizer), then all of the light will be "filtered out" and no light will pass. So, if you look at a light source through cross-polarized lenses, you will see only a completely dark field.

However, many materials, especially crystalline structures, exhibit a property know as "birefringence", whereby polarized light passing through the object will be decomposed into two waves having different angles. When this decomposed light reaches the second polarizer, some of it now passes through because it is no longer oriented at the same angle as the polarizer. So when cross polarized illumination is applied to birefringent materials in the FlowCAM, light areas on a dark background are imaged. This phenomenon can be used to identify (and count) the presence of certain materials in a sample being analyzed. A great example is the detection of invasive mussel larvae (which contain calcite) in a water sample. Other examples of birefringent materials include certain plastics, minerals and other crystalline particles.

Q: In which cases do you recommend the blue laser in the FlowCAM?
A: The 488 laser outputs a blue light at 488nm. This means that it will excite any fluorescent pigment or dye that has an excitation threshold of 488nm +/-. There are many dyes that are designed to work on this wavelength, from stains to genetic tagging. If you research fluorescent spectra you will find that 488nm is very close the excitation frequency of chlorophyll A, while 532 is much further away. It can allow you to distinguish between particles that do fluoresce at 488 and those that don’t. It is very useful when you are staining.

Sulfur in Oil Analyzers:

Q: Can the SLFA-20, SLFA-2100 and SLFA-2800 Analyzers test multiple samples at the same time?
A: The SLFA-20 and the SLFA-2100 can only test one sample at a time, while the SLFA-2800 can test 8 samples at a time.

Q: Can the SLFA-20, SLFA-2100 and SLFA-2800 Analyzers use the same Frame, Window and Disposable Cells?
A: Yes, all the Cells can be used in all three analyzers.

Q: Are all the SLFA Analyzers Portable?
A: The SLFA-20 Analyzer is the only portable equipment, while the other two models are larger and configured for laboratory use only.

Q: Do you provide service for the SLFA-20, SLFA-2100 and SLFA-2800 Analyzers?
A: Yes, we do provide service and an overall preventive maintenance.

Water Quality Analyzers:

Q: Can the life of the S-316 Extraction Solvent be extended? 
A: The S-316 can be cleaned and reused with the SR-305 solvent reclaimer.

Q: Does the S-316 Solvent come in different size containers?
A: The S-316 is only offered in bottles of 1.5 kg.

Q: What type of waters can the Manta2 be used in?
A: The Manta 2 can be used in fresh, salt, and polluted waters. It is designed for use in rivers, lakes, oceans, estuaries, swamps, streams, ponds, seas, wetlands, and any other form of naturally occurring water.



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